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  1. Introduction
  2. Network Model
  3. Topology
  4. Physical Media
  5. Wireless Media
  6. Network Card
  7. Modems
  8. Outside Connections
  9. Wide Area Network Connections
  10. Repeaters, Bridges, Routers
  11. Network Types
  12. Ethernet
  13. Token Ring
  14. ARCnet
  15. AppleTalk
  16. FDDI
  17. Architecture Comparisons
  18. Categories
  19. TCP/IP
  20. IPX/SPX
  21. NetBEUI
  22. AppleTalk
  23. SNA
  24. Others
  25. Suites and Network Layers
  26. Installing Drivers
  27. DNS
  28. Network Operating Systems
  29. Applications, mail, groupware, DBMS
  30. Backing up the network
  31. Troubleshooting
  32. Web, SNMP, admin, firewalls
  33. Networking Terms and Definitions
  34. Credits

Network Applications

There are three categories of applications with regard to networks:

  1. Stand alone applications - Includes editors.
  2. Network versions of stand alone applications - May be licensed for multiple users.
  3. Applications only for a network include databases, mail, group scheduling, groupware.

Models for network applications

  1. Client-server - Processing is split between the client which interacts with the user and the server performing back end processing.
  2. Shared file systems - The server is used for file storage and the processing of the file is done on the client computer.
  3. Applications that are centralized - An example is a Telnet session. The data and the program run on the central computer and the user uses an interface such as the Telnet client or X server to send commands to the central computer and to see the results.

E-mail Systems

  • Novell GroupWise - Also called Windows Messaging
  • Microsoft Mail
  • Microsoft Exchange - This is for the Microsoft Exchange Server. There is a Microsoft Exchange client for the Microsoft Exchange server and a client for an internet mail account only.
  • Lotus Notes
  • cc:Mail - From Lotus and IBM

There are four types of programs used in the process of sending and receiving mail as defined by the CCITT X.400 specification. They are:

  • MUA - Mail users agent. This is the program a user will use to type e-mail. It usually incorporates an editor for support. The user types the mail and it is passed to the sending MTA. This may also be called the user agent (UA).
  • MTA - Message transfer agent is used to pass mail from the sending machine to the receiving machine. There is a MTA program running on both the sending and receiving machine. Sendmail is a MTA.
  • MS - Message Store is a storage area for messages that canít be delivered immediately when the recipient is off-line.
  • AU - Access Unit provides access to resources like fax, telex, and teletex.
  • LDA - Local delivery agent on the receiving machine receives the mail from its MTA. This program is usually procmail.
  • Mail notifier - This program notifies the recipient that they have mail. Normally this requires two programs, biff and comsat. Biff allows the administrator or user to turn on comsat service.
  • Directory service - Used to provide user names on the system. Microsoft provides Global Address List and Personal Address Book.

Other components of mail service include:

  • Directory services - A list of users on a system. Microsoft provides a Global Address List and a Personal Address Book.
  • Post Office - This is where the messages are stored.

Mail Protocols

  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transport Protocol is used on the internet, it is not a transport layer protocol but is an application layer protocol.
  • POP3 - Post Office Protocol version 3 is used by clients to access an internet mail server to get mail. It is not a transport layer protocol.
  • IMAP4 - Internet Mail Access Protocol version 4 is the replacement for POP3.
  • MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension is the protocol that defines the way files are attached to SMTP messages.
  • X.400 - International Telecommunication Union standard defines transfer protocols for sending mail between mail servers.
  • MHS - Message Handling Service by Novell is used for mail on Netware networks.

Mail API

Mail application programming interfaces (APIs) allow e-mail support to be integrated into application programs.

  • MAPI - Microsoft's Messaging API which is incorporated throughout Microsoft's office products.
  • VIM - Vendor-Independent Messaging protocol from Lotus is supported by many vendors exclusive of Microsoft.

Message Handling Service (MHS)

  • MHS and Global MHS by Novell
  • MHS by OSI - It is called MOTIS (message-oriented text interchange system).


This is a recommendation outlining how an organization can share objects and names on a large network. It is hierarchical similar to DNS, defining domains consisting of organizations, divisions, departments, and workgroups. The domains provide information about the users and available resources on that domain, This X.500 system is like a directory. Its recommendation comes from the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT).

Scheduling systems

  • Microsoft Schedule+
  • Lotus Organizer


Used for various electronic communication to enable a group to work together better. Functions may include group discussion, submission of reports and time sheets electronically, an on line help desk database, forms design and access, and creating a document as a group such as configuration management. Groupware software includes Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, internet news, interactive conferencing, and others. Group messaging allows several people to join a conversation.

Database Management Systems (DBMS)

They are used to share data on a network. DBMS standards for distributed databases:

  • SQL - Structured Query Language is a database access language. It is used by most client/server database applications.
  • ODBC - Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) from Microsoft lets application developers integrate database connections in applications. It is an application programming interface (API). ODBC drivers convert an application's query into SQL and send it to the database engine program.
  • DRDA - Distributed Relational Database Architecture is from IBM.

When information is processed in a distributed database, it is called a transaction. The two phases of a transaction are:

  1. Write or Update - The data is temporarily updated. An abort can cancel what this phase did by removing the changed data from a temporary storage area.
  2. Commit - The changed data is made permanent in the database.

Databases store multiple copies of the data which is called replication. They must be sure the various copies of the database on various servers is accurate with identical data. Data is also partitioned into smaller blocks of data.