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  1. Introduction
  2. Network Models
  3. Network Layers
  4. TCP/IP Protocols
  5. Microsoft Protocols
  6. IPX/SPX Protocols
  7. AppleTalk Protocols
  8. SNA Protocols
  9. Other Protocols
  10. Authentication Protocols
  11. Encryption Protocols
  12. Tunneling Protocols
  13. Terms and Definitions
  14. Credits

Protocol Terms

  1. ADSP - AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol is used to provide data stream service for sockets. The data stream is full duplex meaning communication may be sent both directions at the same time. Works at the OSI network model session layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  2. AEP - AppleTalk echo protocol uses echoes to tell if a computer, or node, is available. It also measures the time it takes for eches to travel from the source computer (node) to the destination and back. Works at the OSI network model transport layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  3. AFP - AppleTalk Filing protocol makes network files appear local by managing file sharing at the presentation layer. This protocol is build to top of ASP. AFP supports communication between different types of computers. Works at the OSI network model application and presentation layers. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  4. AppleShare - Works at the application layer to provide services. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  5. APPC - Advanced Peer-to-Peer Communications provides peer to peer services at the transport and session layer. Part of the System Network Architecture (SNA) suite of protocols.
  6. APPN - Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking supports the computer connections at the network and transport layers. Part of the System Network Architecture (SNA) suite of protocols.
  7. ARP - Address Resolution Protocol enables the packaging of IP data into ethernet packages. It is the system and messaging protocol that is used to find the ethernet (hardware) address from a specific IP number. Without this protocol, the ethernet package could not be generated from the IP package, because the ethernet address could not be determined. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  8. ARUP - AppleTalk update routing is a newer version of RTMP. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  9. ASP - AppleTalk Session Protocol. opens, maintains, and closes transactions during a session, while ADSP provides a full-duplex, byte-stream service between any two sockets on an AppleTalk Internet. Works at the OSI network model session layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  10. ATP - AppleTalk Transaction Protocol provides a Transport Layer connection between computers. This protocol guarantees reliability by directing the transaction process and binding the request and response. Works at the OSI network model transport layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  11. BACP - Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol.
  12. BAP - Bandwidth Allocation Protocol is a bandwidth control protocol for PPP connections. It works with BACP.
  13. BGP - Border Gateway Protocol. When two systems are using BGP, they establish a TCP connection, then send each other their BGP routing tables. BGP uses distance vectoring. It detects failures by sending periodic keep alive messages to its neighbors every 30 seconds. It exchanges information about reachable networks with other BGP systems including the full path of systems that are between them. Described by RFC 1267, 1268, and 1497.
  14. BOOTP - Bootstrap protocol is used to assign an IP address to diskless computers and tell it what server and file to load which will provide it with an operating system. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  15. CHAP - Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol is a three way handshake protocol which is considered more secure than PAP. Authentication Protocol.
  16. CIPE - Crypto IP Encapsulation. An encryption protocol.
  17. CSLIP - Compressed SLIP is essentially data compression of the SLIP protocol. It uses Van Jacobson compression to drastically reduce the overhead of packet overhead. This may also be used with PPP and called CPPP.
  18. DDP - Datagram Delivery Protocol is a routable protocol that provides for data packet (datagram) transportation. It operates at the network layer of the OSI network model which is the same level the IP protocol in TCP/IP operates at. Works at the OSI network model network layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  19. DECnet - From Digital Equipment Corporation is a suite of protocols which may be used on large networks that integrate mainframe and minicomputer systems
  20. DES - Data Encryption Standard for older clients and servers.
  21. DHCP - Dynamic host configuration protocol is a method of assigning and controlling the IP addresses of computers on a given network. It is a server based service that automatically assigns IP numbers when a computer boots. This way the IP address of a computer does not need to be assigned manually. This makes changing networks easier to manage. DHCP can perform all the functions of BOOTP. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  22. DLC - Data Link Control. This protocol operates at the data link layer and is designed for communications between Hewlett-Packard network printers and IBM mainframe computers. This protocol is not routable.
  23. EAP - Extensible Authentication Protocol is used between a dial-in client and server to determine what authentication protocol will be used.
  24. EGP - Exterior Gateway Protocol is used between routers of different systems.
  • Ethernet - Ethernet is not really called a protocol. There are also many types of ethernet. The most common ethernet which is used to control the handling of data at the lowest layer of the network model is 802.3 ethernet. 802.3 ethernet privides a means of encapsulating data frames to be sent between computers. It specifies how network data collisions are handled along with hardware addressing of network cards.
  • FTP - File Transfer Protocol allows file transfer between two computers with login required. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used to transport HTML pages from web servers to web browsers. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • ICMP - Internet control message protocol (ICMP) provides management and error reporting to help manage the process of sending data between computers. (Management). This protocol is used to report connection status back to computers that are trying to connect other computers. For example, it may report that a destination host is not reachable. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol used to support multicasting. IGMP messages are used by multicast routers to track group memberships on each of its networks. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • IGP - Interior Gateway Protocol. The name used to describe the fact that each system on the internet can choose its own routing protocol. RIP and OSPF are interior gateway protocols.
  • IMAP4 - Internet Mail Access Protocol version 4 is the replacement for POP3.
  • IP - Internet Protocol. Except for ARP and RARP all protocols' data packets will be packaged into an IP data packet. IP provides the mechanism to use software to address and manage data packets being sent to computers. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • IPIP tunneling - Tunneling IP packets in IP packets. Used for VPN tunneling.
  • IPSec - Internet protocol security, developed by IETF, implemented at layer 3. It is a collection of security measures that address data privacy, integrity, authentication, and key management, in addition to tunneling. Does not cover key management. A VPN tunneling Protocol.
  • IPX - Internetwork Packet Exchange supports the transport and network layers of the OSI network model. Provides for network addressing and routing. It provides fast, unreliable, communication with network nodes using a connection less datagram service. Part of the IPX/SPX suite of protocols.
  • ISAKMP/Oakley - Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol Authentication
  • L2F - Layer2 Forwarding, works at the link layer of the OSI model. It has no encryption. It is being replaced by L2TP. A VPN tunneling Protocol.
  • L2TP - Layer2 Tunneling Protocol. (RFC 2661) Combines features of L2F and PPTP and works at the link layer. No encryption or key management included in specifications. A VPN tunneling Protocol.
  • LAP - Link-Access Protocol is a set of data link layer protocols that support LocalTalk (LLAP), EtherTalk (ELAP), TokenTalk (TLAP), and FDDITalk. The LAP manager determines which LAP to connect for the correct upper level protocol.
  • LCP - Link Control Protocol
  • LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is a standard for directory services with additional features that enhance its capabilities being added. LDAP may allow for consolidation of directory lists to be consolidated. An LDAP server provides the directory services and other LDAP functions.
  • MHS - Message Handling Service by Novell is used for mail on Netware networks.
  • MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension is the protocol that defines the way files are attached to SMTP messages.
  • MS-CHAP (MD4) - Uses a Microsoft version of RSA message digest 4 challenge and reply protocol. It only works on Microsoft systems and enables data encryption. Selecting this authentification method causes all data to be encrypted.
  • MSP - Message Send Protocol
  • MTP - Multicast Transport Protocol is a new transport layer protocol designed for reliable multicast network message transport.
  • NBP - Name-binding protocol translates addresses into user friently three part names. Works at the OSI network model transport layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  • NBT - NetBIOS over TCP/IP refers to NetBIOS being transported by TCP/IP rather than NetBEUI defined by RFC 1002.
  • NCP - NetWare Core Protocol provides for client/server interactions such as file and print sharing. It works at the application, presentation, and session levels. Part of the IPX/SPX suite of protocols.
  • NetBIOS - Network Basic Input/Output allows browsing of network resources and handles basic functions of a Windows network. Two way acknowledged data transfer is used. It is a Microsoft protocol used to support Microsoft Networking. Works at the session layer. Controls the sessions between computers and maintains connections.
  • NetBEUI - NetBIOS Extended User Interface. Microsoft Protocol used to support Microsoft Networking. Provides data transportation. It is not a routable transport protocol which is why NBT exists on large networks to use routable TCP protocol on large networks. This protocol may sometimes be called the NetBIOS frame (NBF) protocol. Works at the Transport and Network layers. NetBEUI - The main protocol used for networking in the windows environment. NetBIOS Extended User Interface works at the transport layer and provides data transportation. It is not a routable transport protocol.
  • NFS - Network File System is a protocol that allows UNIX and Linux systems remotely mount each other's file systems. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • NNTP - Network News Transport Protocol is used to link newsgroups for discussions on the web.
  • OSI - Open Systems Interconnect. A suite of protocols developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) which corresponds with the layers of the OSI model. These protocols provide a number of application protocols for various functions. The OSI protocol stack may be used to connect large systems. OSI is a routable transport protocol.
  • OSPF - Open Shortest Path First dynamic routing protocol. A link state protocol rather than a distance vector protocol. It tests the status of its link to each of its neighbors and sends the acquired information to them.
  • PAP - Password Authentification Protocol is a two way handshake protocol designed for use with PPP. Authentication Protocol Password Authentication Protocol is a plain text password used on older SLIP systems. It is not secure.
  • PAP - Printer Access Protocol is a connection oriented service for managing information between workstations and printers. It is used to send print requests to printers. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  • POP3 - Post Office Protocol version 3 is used by clients to access an internet mail server to get mail. It is not a transport layer protocol.
  • PPP - Point to Point Protocol is a form of serial line data encapsulation that is an improvement over SLIP which provides serial bi-directional communication. It is much like SLIP but can support AppleTalk, IPX, TCP/IP, and NetBEUI along with TCP/IP which is supported by SLIP. It can negociate connection parameters such as speed along with the ability to support PAP and CHAP user authentication.
  • PPTP - Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (RFC 2637) works at the link layer. No encryption or key management included in specifications. A VPN tunneling Protocol
  • Protocol - A set of standards sets of standards that define all operations within a network. There are various protocols that operate at various levels of the OSI network model such as transport protocols include TCP, SPX.
  • RADIUS - Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service used to authenticate users dialing in remotely to servers in a organization's network.
  • RARP - Reverse address resolution protocol is used to allow a computer without a local permanent data storage media to determine its IP address from its ethernet address. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • RIP - Routing Information Protocol is used to dynamically update router tables on WANs or the internet. A distance-vector algorithm is used to calculate the best route for a packet. RFC 1058, 1388 (RIP2)
  • RTMP - Routing Table Maintenance Protocol is used to update routers with information about network status and address tables. The whole address table is sent across the network. This protocol sends its information as broadcasts across the network every 10 seconds. Works at the OSI network model transport layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.
  • SAP - Service Advertising Protocol packets are used by file and print servers to periodically advertise the address of the server and the services available. It works at the application, presentation, and session levels. Part of the IPX/SPX suite of protocols.
  • S/Key - A one time password system, secure against replays. RFC 2289. Authentication Protocol.
  • SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol. This protocol places data packets into data frames in preparation for transport across network hardware media. This protocol is used for sending data across serial lines. There is no error correction, addressing or packet identification. There is no authentication or negotiation capabilities with SLIP. SLIP will only support transport of IP packets.
  • SMB - Microsoft Protocol used to support Microsoft Networking by providing redirector client to server communication. Works at the presentation layer..
  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is used to transport mail. Simple Mail Transport Protocol is used on the internet, it is not a transport layer protocol but is an application layer protocol. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • SNAP - Sub Network Access Protocol.
  • SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol is used to manage all types of network elements based on various data sent and received. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • Socks - handled at the application layer.
  • SPAP - Shiva PAP. Only NT RAS server supports this for clients dialing in.
  • SPX - Sequenced Packet Exchange operates at the transport layer providing connection oriented communication on top of IPX. Part of the IPX/SPX suite of protocols.
  • SSL - Secure sockets layer. An encryption protocol.
  • TACACS - Offers authentication, accounting, and authorization. Authentication Protocol.
  • TCP - A reliable connection oriented protocol used to control the management of application level services between computers. It is used for transport by some applications. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • Telnet is used to remotely open a session on another computer. It relies on TCP for transport and is defined by RFC854.
  • TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol allows file transfer between two computers with no login required. It is limited, and is intended for diskless stations. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • UDP - An unreliable connection less protocol used to control the management of application level services between computers. It is used for transport by some applications which must provide their own reliability. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
  • X.25 - This is a set of protocols developed by the CCITT/ITU which specifies how to connect computer devices over a internetwork. These protocols use a great deal of error checking for use over unreliable telephone lines.
  • X.400 - International Telecommunication Union standard defines transfer protocols for sending mail between mail servers.
  • X.500 - This is a recommendation outlining how an organization can share objects and names on a large network. It is hierarchical similar to DNS, defining domains consisting of organizations, divisions, departments, and workgroups. The domains provide information about the users and available resources on that domain, This X.500 system is like a directory. Its recommendation comes from the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT).
  • ZIP - Zone Information Protocol is used by AppleTalk routers co create a Zone Information Table (ZIT). The ZIT has a list of zone names which are associated with network numbers. This list is displayed in the Apple System's file Chooser. Works at the OSI network model session layer. Part of the AppleTalk suite of protocols.