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  1. Introduction

    Files and File Structure

  2. File Structure
  3. Configuration Files
  4. File Formats

    Commands

  5. Filesystem Management
  6. File Management and Viewing
  7. Help, Job and Process Management
  8. Network Management
  9. System Management
  10. User Management
  11. Printing and Programming
  12. Document Preparation
  13. Miscellaneous
  14. Credits

Linux File Structure

In the Linux file structure files are grouped according to purpose. Ex: commands, data files, documentation. Parts of a Unix directory tree are listed below. All directories are grouped under the root entry "/". That part of the directory tree is left out of the below diagram. See the FSSTND standard (Filesystem standard).

  • root - The home directory for the root user
  • home - Contains the user's home directories along with directories for services
    • ftp
    • HTTP
    • samba
    • george
  • bin - Commands needed during bootup that might be needed by normal users
  • sbin - Like bin but commands are not intended for normal users. Commands run by LINUX.
  • proc - This filesystem is not on a disk. It is a virtual filesystem that exists in the kernels imagination which is memory.
    • 1 - A directory with info about process number 1. Each process has a directory below proc.
  • usr - Contains all commands, libraries, man pages, games and static files for normal operation.
    • bin - Almost all user commands. some commands are in /bin or /usr/local/bin.
    • sbin - System admin commands not needed on the root filesystem. e.g., most server programs.
    • include - Header files for the C programming language. Should be below /user/lib for consistency.
    • lib - Unchanging data files for programs and subsystems
    • local - The place for locally installed software and other files.
    • man - Manual pages
    • info - Info documents
    • doc - Documentation
    • tmp
    • X11R6 - The X windows system files. There is a directory similar to usr below this directory.
    • X386 - Like X11R6 but for X11 release 5
  • boot - Files used by the bootstrap loader, LILO. Kernel images are often kept here.
  • lib - Shared libraries needed by the programs on the root filesystem
    • modules - Loadable kernel modules, especially those needed to boot the system after disasters.
  • dev - Device files
  • etc - Configuration files specific to the machine.
    • skel - When a home directory is created it is initialized with files from this directory
    • sysconfig - Files that configure the linux system for devices.
  • var - Contains files that change for mail, news, printers log files, man pages, temp files
    • file
    • lib - Files that change while the system is running normally
    • local - Variable data for programs installed in /usr/local.
    • lock - Lock files. Used by a program to indicate it is using a particular device or file
    • log - Log files from programs such as login and syslog which logs all logins and logouts.
    • run - Files that contain information about the system that is valid until the system is next booted
    • spool - Directories for mail, printer spools, news and other spooled work.
    • tmp - Temporary files that are large or need to exist for longer than they should in /tmp.
    • catman - A cache for man pages that are formatted on demand
  • mnt - Mount points for temporary mounts by the system administrator.
  • tmp - Temporary files. Programs running after bootup should use /var/tmp.