Files and File Structure
- File Structure
- Configuration Files
- File Formats
- Filesystem Management
- File Management and Viewing
- Help, Job and Process Management
- Network Management
- System Management
- User Management
- Printing and Programming
- Document Preparation
Linux File Structure
In the Linux file structure files are grouped according to purpose. Ex: commands, data files, documentation. Parts of a Unix directory tree are listed below. All directories are grouped under the root entry "/". That part of the directory tree is left out of the below diagram. See the FSSTND standard (Filesystem standard).
- root - The home directory for the root user
- home - Contains the user's home directories along with directories for services
- bin - Commands needed during bootup that might be needed by normal users
- sbin - Like bin but commands are not intended for normal users. Commands run by LINUX.
- proc - This filesystem is not on a disk. It is a virtual filesystem that exists in the kernels imagination which is memory.
- 1 - A directory with info about process number 1. Each process has a directory below proc.
- usr - Contains all commands, libraries, man pages, games and static files for normal operation.
- bin - Almost all user commands. some commands are in /bin or /usr/local/bin.
- sbin - System admin commands not needed on the root filesystem. e.g., most server programs.
- include - Header files for the C programming language. Should be below /user/lib for consistency.
- lib - Unchanging data files for programs and subsystems
- local - The place for locally installed software and other files.
- man - Manual pages
- info - Info documents
- doc - Documentation
- X11R6 - The X windows system files. There is a directory similar to usr below this directory.
- X386 - Like X11R6 but for X11 release 5
- boot - Files used by the bootstrap loader, LILO. Kernel images are often kept here.
- lib - Shared libraries needed by the programs on the root filesystem
- modules - Loadable kernel modules, especially those needed to boot the system after disasters.
- dev - Device files
- etc - Configuration files specific to the machine.
- skel - When a home directory is created it is initialized with files from this directory
- sysconfig - Files that configure the linux system for devices.
- var - Contains files that change for mail, news, printers log files, man pages, temp files
- lib - Files that change while the system is running normally
- local - Variable data for programs installed in /usr/local.
- lock - Lock files. Used by a program to indicate it is using a particular device or file
- log - Log files from programs such as login and syslog which logs all logins and logouts.
- run - Files that contain information about the system that is valid until the system is next booted
- spool - Directories for mail, printer spools, news and other spooled work.
- tmp - Temporary files that are large or need to exist for longer than they should in /tmp.
- catman - A cache for man pages that are formatted on demand
- mnt - Mount points for temporary mounts by the system administrator.
- tmp - Temporary files. Programs running after bootup should use /var/tmp.