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  1. Agustin's Linux Manual
  2. Networks & Servers
  3. About the Author
  4. Table of Contents
  5. IP Addresses Networks and Subnets
  6. Network Classes
  7. IP Address in Decimal Notation
  8. Sub-netting
  9. Designing Subnets
  10. Allocating Subnets
  11. Defining Host Addresses
  12. Variable Length Subnet Mask
  13. Routing Protocols
  14. Classless Internet Domain Routing
  15. Servers - Chapter 9
  16. Apache Web Server
  17. Configuring Apache
  18. Uploading Web Pages
  19. Apache Overview
  20. MIMEMagic
  21. DNS Servers
  22. Welcome to Webmin
  23. Creating the Master Domain
  24. Adding the Reverse Zone
  25. Querying the DNS server
  26. Adding Virtual Domain to DNS Server
  27. Reverse Zone for Virtual Zone
  28. Binding IP Address for Virtual Domain
  29. Virtual Web Hosting
  30. DNS Security Options
  31. FTP Server
  32. Securing the FTP Server
  33. Email Server
  34. Postfix Configuration
  35. Dealing with Identical Users
  36. Configuring Email Clients
  37. Configuring Outlook
  38. Samba Server
  39. Configuring SAMBA Server
  40. The smb.conf File
  41. smb.conf Analysis
  42. Adding Users to Samba

Chapter 8

IP Addresses Networks and Subnets

Introduction to Networking

Before you start to implement your servers, you will need to understand the type of networks available. I wanted to do this because I really want you to understand the importance of deploying networks. You may someday provide high-speed Internet access at a lower price compared to those big companies that only think about themselves. If someday you can achieve this, I would be happy to hear about it.

The Internet was established in the early 1980s, and in the mid 1990s it went through major changes. As the World Wide Web became popular, companies and individuals were able to offer virtual storefronts, and a new way of doing business began. The industry grew, and new web sites were contributing to growth. The Internet backbone itself soon would face a major scaling problem and would be unable to provide continued and uninterrupted services.

Engineers realized that the current address space IP version 4 would become exhausted and unable to route new networks. The IPv4 defined a 32-bit address, which means that there are only 2 to the 32 power (4,294,967,296) address available. You might think that this is a big number, but can you imagine how many new connections are activated each day. Eventually it would become exhausted because the addresses were not allocated efficiently.

Because of this shortage and the current class networks did not allow the addressing space to be used at its maximum potential; the IETF (Internet Electronic Task Force) expressed concerns and initiated talk for a new solution. Due to this situation, they implemented the new IPV6 also known as IPng; which is what routers now use in central backbones to route all information we send and request through the Internet.

IP Addressing and Class

In September 1981, IP addressing was standardized and required that each host on the Internet would have a unique 32-bit network number and routers connected to multiple networks would have a unique IP address for each interface. This would create a two level hierarchy structured network.

Network Addressing
Fig 8.1      Subnet mask | IP Address

As you can see this level is now known as Prefix and Host.

  • All hosts (individual computers) in the network share the prefix (subnet mask).
  • The host (IP address) is unique and can't be shared. If you repeat an IP address within the network, it will cause conflict.