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  1. Introduction
  2. Capabilities
  3. Structure
  4. The Registry
  5. System and Configuration Files
  6. Security
  7. Application Support
  8. Requirements
  9. Installation
  10. Unattended Installation
  11. Booting
  12. Filesystems
  13. Programs
  14. Control Panel
  15. Tool
  16. Commands
  17. Customization
  18. Environment Variables
  19. Printing
  20. Performance
  21. System Services
  22. Permissions
  23. Groups
  24. User Rights and Auditing
  25. User Profiles
  26. Policies
  27. Network Model
  28. Resource Access
  29. Network Browsing
  30. Protocol Support
  31. RAS
  32. Networking
  33. Backups
  34. Events
  35. Error Handling
  36. Diagnostic Tools
  37. Items to Memorize
  38. Terms
  39. Credits

Windows NT Protocol Support

Networking components installed by default are:

  • NetBIOS
  • TCP/IP
  • Workstation Service - Allows the station to be a client or server / peer on a network.
  • Server
  • Browser
  • NIC driver
  • RPC - Used for network logon.


Novell understands the UNC naming convention. NT Servers can provide gateway service to NetWare file servers for NT clients that don't have NWLink installed. NetWare services are supported on the client side by:

  • NWLink - NetWare Link implements the IPX/SPX protocol for Microsoft NT.
  • A TDI (Transport driver interface)for IPX
  • CSNW - Client Services for NetWare. The CSNW configuration is done using the CSNW applet in the control panel. CSNW is used to set bindary or tree and context connection. Also print and logon script options are set with CSNW.

NWLink and CSNW must be installed on the client side to connect to NetWare servers. NetWare is faster for file and print services but doesn't feature protective memory or cooperative multitasking. A NLM is a NetWare Loadable Module which is an application running on a NetWare server. NT supports NetWare logon scripts and logging on to NetWare servers. NDS is NetWare Directory Services which allows clients to browse the NetWare directory tree structure of available computers on a NetWare network. This is supported by NT 4.0.

Other NetWare Services:

  • FPNW - File and print service for NetWare allows an NT server to act as a NetWare file and print server. This is now called Service for NetWare.
  • DSMN - Directory service manager allows netware accounts to be transferred to and managed by an NT Domain controller.
  • Migration Tool for NetWare - NetWare account information may be added to the Windows NT account database. NetWare drive volumes may be moved to an NTFS volume with all the same permissions and rights.

NT NetWare Support Tools

NT tools for support of NetWare environments:

  • GSNW - Gateway Services for NetWare is used to support workstations without NWLink or CSNW installed so they can connect to a NetWare server through a GSNW.
  • CSNW - Client Services for NetWare supports client services.

Windows NT-based computers support the following NetWare protocols:

  • NCP - NetWare Core Protocol provides file and print services on a NetWare server and is similar in function to Microsoft’s SMB protocol.
  • LIP - Large Internet Protocol allows routed connections to negotiate the largest packet size.

CSNW is installed using the Network Services tab in the Control Panel.

NetWare Logon

NetWare logon may be:

  • Bindary style - The default support for NT.
  • NDS - This shows NetWare shared resources in a tree structured hierarchy. NT supports this in version 4 and later. Allows NDS tree browsing.

Both methods are supported by NT. If you use NDS and want to see the NDS tree the bindary protocol must be disabled with the command:


This should be done when running Netware 4.0 or above.

NWLink Options

There are three NT configurable options for NWLink.

  • Frame type - A frame type associated with the topology of the network must be part of the packet format. Frame types are detected on the network automatically, but if multiple frame types are detected NWLink uses 802.2. Possible frames are:
    • Ethernet 802.2 (Default for NW 3.12 and later)
    • Ethernet 802.3 (Default for NW 3.11 and older)
    • Ethernet II
    • 802.5 for token ring
    • SNAP

    If NetWare services are not working correctly, the frame type may be the problem. Normally, for most adapters, the frame type should be set to auto detect. The frame type is configured on NT server using the General tab under NWLink properties. When on auto detect, it will select type 802.2 or the first frame type detected. With manual selection multiple frame types may be specified. The NT workstation frame type must be configured in the registry at the following location:


    The NIC# is the registry entry of the network card. You need to set the parameter "PktType" to one of the following values:

    • 0 - Ethernet II
    • 1 - Ethernet 802.3
    • 2 - Ethernet 802.2
    • 3 - Ethernet SNAP
    • 4 -ArcNet

  • The network number - If you have multiple network cards, you may need to set network numbers. Normally, set the network number for autodetect. IPX addresses are made of network and node addresses. The default used is 00000000 unless file and print services or RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is being used.
  • RIP - Routing Information Protocol, a new feature on Windows NT 4.0 servers allows the NT server to be an IPX router. To enable it, enable the RIP setting in NWLink.

NWLink alone does not support access to NetWare core services (file and print services). It only allows applications to be run.

NWLink NetWare Utility Support

NT does not support all NetWare aware Windows and DOS applications although most will run if the DLL library support is available. NWLink supports most NetWare utilities, but a few are supported with different commands:

Netware commandNT command
AttachNet Use
CaptureNet Use
LoginNet Logon
LogoutNet Logoff
SlistNet View

NetWare Troubleshooting

  1. Be sure the NetWare server is running correctly.
  2. Be sure NT Workstation attaches to Microsoft Windows network resources correctly. In network neighborhood the two network branches, "Microsoft Windows Network" and "NetWare Services" should be viewable under "Entire Network".
  3. Be sure NWLink and CSNW are installed.
  4. Be sure the Context and CSNW settings are correct.
  5. Be sure the frame types are correct. Normally frame type should be set to "auto".


Microsoft supports TCP/IP with the following protocols and tools:

  • ARP - Address Resolution Protocol is used to determine hardware addresses of intended recipients in order to assemble the lowest layer or ethernet packets. Diagnostic
  • Finger - Is used to acquire user information from a remote computer.
  • FTP - File Transfer Protocol allows file transfer between two computers requiring a logon and connection establishment.
  • Hostname - Diagnostic. Shows the local computer hostname.
  • ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol provides for special messages relating to errors and packet delivery.
  • IP - Internet Protocol provides network support at the network layer by providing for routing and IP addresses.
  • IPCONFIG - Displays the current TCP/IP configuration. Diagnostic
  • LPQ - Diagnostic. Displays print queue status.
  • NBT - NetBIOS over TCP/IP utilizes the TCP/IP protocols to support the NetBIOS upper layer protocol. TCP/IP is used for support of NetBIOS at the network and transport layers.
  • nbstat - Diagnostic. NetBIOS over TCP/IP status.
  • Netstat - TCP/IP connections and statistics can be displayed. Diagnostic
  • PING - Packet InterNet Groper us used to determine that another computer that supports TCP/IP is functioning. The IP address or the DNS name of the computer may be pinged. If IP address pinging works and name pinging causes a delay, name resolution is the likely problem. Diagnostic
  • Remote Copy - Allows files to be copied between Unix and Windows NT based computers.
  • REXEC - Remote Execution allows a program to be run on a remote computer.
  • Route - Allows for the displays and modification to the computer's routing table. Diagnostic
  • RSH - Remote Shell provides for a limited shell use on Unix computers.
  • SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol is used to monitor network devices and device performance.
  • TCP - Transmission Control Protocol is a connection-oriented, reliable data packet delivery service.
  • Telnet - A terminal like logon session.
  • TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol - A similar utility to FTP that is connection less and does not require logon.
  • Tracert - Diagnostic. Uses ICMP packets to trace routes to TCP/IP locations.
  • UDP - User Datagram Protocol is a connection less, unreliable packet delivery service.

Ping and IPCONFIG are the two main TCP/IP troubleshooting tools. A Windows NT 4.0 computer with two or more network cards can be configured as a router by enabling routing.

Additional Windows components that use TCP/IP

  • WINS - Windows internet naming service, translates UNC names to internet addresses. WINS servers do not resolve fully qualified domain names to IP addresses. They resolve NetBIOS names.
  • Server - Network file shares are made available using this service.
  • Workstation - The ability to access shares
  • Winsock - Windows Sockets is a Windows version of TCP/IP sockets. An API for windows sockets.

NT Workstation Tools for Peer web services

  • Internet services manager
  • Key Manager
  • Peer web services install - Supports www, gopher, and FTP. Each service stores files in its own directory in the InetPub directory.


Microsoft DHCP clients may use these name resolution options:

  • DNS Server - Used to resolve DNS names (not the same as NT domain). The DNS server is specified by IP address and more than one may be specified. They will be tried in order of the specified list.
  • WINS Server - This is a NBNS (NetBIOS Name Server) which contains a list of NetBIOS names. NetBIOS names are defined by RFC 1001 and RFC 1002. WINS is used to resolve NetBIOS names across network segments and routers.
  • NetBIOS Node Type - Defined in RFC 1001 and RFC 1002, allows NetBIOS node type configuration options including B-node, P-node, M-node, and H-node.
  • NetBIOS Scope ID - Defined in RFC 1001 and RFC 1002 specifies the client scope parameter.

NetBIOS Names

The NetBIOS name is the name broadcast and used for NetBIOS browsing and use on Microsoft networks. Normally the NetBIOS name and TCP/IP DNS name are the same.

  • Up to 15 characters
  • Must be unique
  • Unique SID (security Identifier)