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  1. Introduction
  2. Windows 2000 Professional
  3. Windows 2000 Server
  4. Windows 2000 Advanced Server
  5. Windows 2000 Datacenter Server
  6. Application Support
  7. System Operation
  8. Disks and Volumes
  9. Filesystems
  10. Configuration Files
  11. Security
  12. Network Support
  13. Access Management
  14. Processes
  15. AD Structure
  16. AD Objects
  17. AD Object Naming
  18. AD Schema
  19. AD Sites
  20. Domains
  21. AD Functions
  22. AD Replication
  23. DNS
  24. AD Security
  25. AD Installation
  26. AD Configuration
  27. AD Performance
  28. Installation
  29. Installation Options
  30. Unattended Installation
  31. Software Distribution
  32. Remote Installation Service
  33. Language
  34. Accessibility
  35. File Attributes
  37. Distributed File System
  38. Control Panel
  39. Active Directory Tools
  40. Computer Management Console Tools
  41. MMC Tools
  42. Network Tools
  43. Network Monitor
  44. System Performance Monitoring
  45. Tools
  46. Managing Services
  47. Connections
  48. TCP/IP
  49. DHCP
  50. Printing
  51. Routing
  52. IPSec
  53. ICS
  54. Fault Tolerance
  55. Backup
  56. System Failure
  57. Services
  58. Remote Access
  59. WINS
  60. IIS
  61. Certificate Server
  62. Terminal Services
  63. Web Services
  64. Authentication
  65. Accounts
  66. Permissions
  67. Groups
  68. User Rights and Auditing
  69. Auditing
  70. User Profiles
  71. Policies
  72. Group Policies
  73. Miscellaneous
  74. Terms
  75. Credits

Active Directory Sites

A site is a grouping of machines based on a subnet of TCP/IP addresses. An administrator determines what a site is. Sites may contain multiple subnets. There can be several domains in a site.

Active Directory replication to various sites is performed using Active Directory Sites and Services. (Make section explaining how to use this). Sites and subnets are not related to the structure of the domain.

The following may be created:

  • Sites - One or more IP subnets. Generally this refers to a physical site such as a portion of the organization in particular city or part of a city which is linked by leased lines or other media to other parts of the organization.
  • Subnets - Subnets must be created in each site object before it is really active. A network address and subnet mask is used to define the subnet.
  • Site links - It is a list of two or more connected sites. Whether the link will use RPC or SMTP for passing data must be determined before creating the link since it cannot be changed. Selection IP means selection RPC over IP. Site link information includes:
    • Replication schedule - Specify the times the sites can replicate and how often they attempt replication.
    • Link cost - High for a low bandwidth link. A high cost link gets lower priority. A lower priority link is normally used if there are more than one link to the same location.
    • Member sites - Lists sites that are connected using the site link.
    • Transport Mechanism - RPC or SMTP (Mail) is specified.
      • SMTP (Mail) - It cannon be used for replication inside the same site and is a form of asynchronous replication.
      • RPC - Requires more bandwidth than SMTP.
    Bridgehead server - A domain controller that is used to send replication information to one or more other sites across a site link.
  • Site link bridges - Allows one site in a string of sites to replicate through one or two sites to a second or third site. These are only used for fine control of how replication will occur across WAN links. This is actually done automatically by AD, without fine control. To use this feature, automatic bridging of site links must be turned off. You must have three sites to create a site link bridge since it takes three sites and two site links to make a string of sites.
  • Global catalog servers - The global catalog is a searchable master index with data about all objects in a forest. The global catalog server maintains this catalog. It:
    • Helps Active Directory resources be located by users.
    • During logon, it provides group membership information.
    There is one in each domain by default, and the first domain controller in the domain is originally the global catalog server. It is worthwhile to have a global catalog server on each side of a WAN connection if the domain is spread out across a WAN.

If several domain controllers are placed on the network, and later the network is broken into sites, appropriate servers must be manually moved to the appropriate site that they are on. If the domain controller is created after the site is created, the server is placed automatically in the correct site (based on IP address).