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  1. Introduction
  2. OSI Layers
  3. Addresses
  4. SNMP
  5. Network Tools
  6. Routing
  7. ARP
  8. WINS
  9. DNS
  10. NIS
  11. DHCP
  12. Name Resolution
  13. RAS
  14. Connections
  15. Test Pointers
  16. Items to remember
  17. Terms
  18. Credits

WINS

Pentium, 200Mhz computer can process 1500 name registrations and 750 queries per minute. 10,000 clients can be serviced with two WINS servers. Non-WINS clients names and IP addresses must be added to the WINS server lmhosts file.

WINS Manager

A menu selection is "Mapping", "Show Database". Static mappings can be added to WINS for clients that are static and /or are not Windows clients or servers. WINS database replication may be manually performed using the WINS manager. WINS Manager main menu selections:

  • Server
  • View
  • Mappings
    • Show Database
    • Initiate Scavenging
    • Static Mappings
    • Backup Database
    • Restore Local Database
  • Options

WINS Client Support

  • NT Server 5.5+ and 4.0
  • NT Workstation 3.5+ and 4.0
  • Windows 95
  • WFW with TCP/IP-32
  • Microsoft Network Client 3.0 for DOS
  • Lan Manager 2.2c for DOS

No OS/2 Lan manager support.
Client Configuration types:

  • 044 - WINS/NBNS Servers
  • 046 - WINS/NBT Node to 0x8 (H-node)

WINS Proxy Agent Client Support

A WINS proxy agent can be configured to act as a relay for non-WINS clients. One WINS proxy is used on each subnet that has non-WINS clients. This means that machines that are not using WINS (Even Windows machines such as those without TCP/IP) can use a proxy agent to let them find resources on other subnets. There should be a maximum of two proxy agents per subnet. The agent must be a Windows based client, not a server. When NetBIOS names are registered, both the proxy agent and the WINS server checks the name. The proxy agent is configured at the following registry location:

Hkey_Local_Machine\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\NetBT\Parameters

Set the EnableProxy parameter to REG_DWORD value of 1 and restart the computer. When a WINS proxy detects a broadcast from a client, it will first check its cache to see if it has the information. If not it will contact the WINS server.

Static Database Entries

  • Unique - One address for one name.
  • Multihomed - Up to 25 addresses. References a system to define a name.
  • Group - The name broadcasts are sent to. Domains and workgroups may be specified.
  • Internet Group - Extension of group and can be used to gather 25 domain controllers so they can communicate with each other.
  • Domain Name - NetBIOS name to address mapping with 0x1C at the hidden byte. Up to 25 addresses may be stored

WINS Lease and Renewal

When a WINS client boots it must register its computer name with the WINS server. It will attempt to register with its promary WINS server. If the WINS server has a duplicate name already registered the server will send a challenge to the current name owner. It will attempt 3 challenges 500 mS apart until a response is received or the third attempt times out. If the challenge is answered the WINS server will send a negative name resolution response to the client.

If after three attempts, the WINS server was unavailable, the client will attempt to contact any secondary WINS server. If no WINS server is available, the client will register its name using NetBIOS broadcasts.

Each name has a WINS TTL(time to live). When 1/8 th of the time is expired, the client will attempt to renew. If unsuccessful, the client will re-attempt renewal until 1/2 the time has expired, then attempt to register with the secondary name server. After the initial renewal, the client will renew when 1/2 the time is expired.

Backing Up the Database

Backup is automatic after 24 hours. Procedure to set the backup directory:

  1. Open the "WINS Manager Mapping" menu.
  2. Select "Backup Database".
  3. In directories text box, select \WINNTROOT\System32\WINS

The WINS server loads the backup data if it determines that its data is corrupt. Procedure to manually restore the database:

  1. Open the "WINS Manager Mapping" menu.
  2. Select "Restore Database".
  3. Specify the path to the database file.

Another database restoration method is to:

  1. Delete the following files in \WINNTROOT\System32\WINS:
    • JET*.LOG
    • WINSTMP.MDB
    • SYSTEM.MDB
  2. Copy WINS.MDB from the backup directory to \WINNTROOT\System32\WINS.

Database Compacting

Database compacting is done when the database is larger than 30Mb. The JETPACK.EXE utility permorms the operation and should be run periodically. The compact procedure is as follows:

  1. Stop the WINS service
  2. Change to the directory \WINNTROOT\System32\WINS while at a command prompt.
  3. Type "JETPACK WINS.MDB TEMPFILE.MDB. The temporary file is needed but will be deleted at the end of the operation.
  4. Restart the WINS service.

WINS Files

  • JET*.LOG - Contains transaction log files for data recovery.
  • SYSTEM.MDB - Used to track the WINS database structure.
  • WINS.MDB - The WINS database file
  • WINSTMP.MDB - Temporary file.

WINS Replication

When two WINS servers are configured to communicate with each other replication occurs any time the data base on one of them changes. Servers are configured as a push or pull partner. A server can be both a push and pull partner. Push partners send update notices when a database change is made. A pull partner asks push partners for database entries more recent than their current listings. Only changes are replicated. Pull servers are used across slow links since pull requests can be set for specific times.

  • A pull server will pull updates when it is started, then at chosen times thereafter.
  • A push partner will send updates when a change threshold is reached. A threshold and update interval may be set.

WINS database replication may be manually performed using the WINS manager. If multicasting is supported on the network WINS servers can multicast to 224.0.1.24 every 40 minutes. WINS server partnerships are on by default. The values "UseSelfFndPnrs" and "McastIntvl" are used to set partnership on or off and the multicast interval.

To add replication partners, the menu item "Server" and "Replication Partners" is selected using the WINS Manager. The "Configure" button is used to set:

  • Replication intervals
  • Retry counts
  • The number of changes before sending updates. Updates every 50000 changes are not possible.

The WINS Configuration menu controls the following:

  • Renewal interval - Default of 96 hours, sets the amount of time between which a client must renew its name.
  • Extinction Interval - Default of 96 hours - Time between when a name is released and marked as extinct.
  • Extinction Time-out - Default of 96 hours with a 24 hour minimum. Time between when a name is marked as extinct and removed from the database.
  • Verify Interval - Default of 576 hours (24 days). - The interval between which WINS entries owned other WINS servers are verified.

The "Advanced" button allows the following selections:

  • Logging enabled - WINS database events are logged
  • Log Detailed Events - The amount of detail in the database is set.
  • Replicate Only with Partners - Enabled by default, this will allow a pull server to send to WINS servers it is not set as a partner to.
  • Backup On Termination - When WINS Manager is closed, the database is backed up.
  • Migrate On/Off - Static entries are changed to dynamic when a conflict between a static and dynamic entry is found.
  • Starting Version Count - Only needet if the database becomes corrupt, this is an ID number for the database.
  • Database Backup Path - A local path for the database to be backed up to.

Database entry types:

  • \\Comupter name 00h - Workstation service
  • \\Comupter name 03h - Messenger service
  • \\Computer name 20h - Server Service
  • \\User Name 03h - The logged on user name
  • \\Domain name 1bH

WINS Reverse Lookup

A WINS-R record at the root zone of DNS allows WINS to be used by DNS for reverse lookup. WINS reverse lookup is enabled at the "WINS Reverse Lookup" property page by doing the following:

  • Check the "Use WINS Reverse Lookup" checkbox.
  • Enter the DNS Host Domain to be added to the NetBIOS name.

WINS TTL

The "WINS Lookup" property page (in DNS?) is used to set the WINS TTL(Time to Live) for returned queries.